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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAILLE 

GRADE ONE AND A HALF AND 

BRAILLE GRADE TWO 



171 



By 

Robert B. Irwin, Executive Director 

and 

Ruth E. Wilcox, Statistician 



Bureau of Research and Education 

American Foundation for the Blind, Inc. 

125 East 46th Street 

New York, N. Y. 

1929 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/comparativestudOOrobe 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAILLE GRADE ONE AND 
A HALF AND BRAILLE GRADE TWO 

By 
Robert B. Irwin and Ruth E. Wnxox 

Reasons for the Study 

During the past few years there has been an increasing interest in braille 
grade two in the United States. A recent canvass of the library users in 
this country shows that about twenty per cent of them read grade two to a 
greater or less extent. Many of these grade two readers are enthusiasts for 
this system, and have been surprisingly active in their proselyting work. 
Some of those who attended the 1929 Convention of the American Associa- 
tion of Workers, for the Blind were alarmed at the extent to which the old 
"type question" was raising its head. 

American authorities agree that grade two has certain objections, but in 
spite of these objections grade two is gaining in popularity. What are the 
redeeming features of grade two? Could these redeeming features be sepa- 
rated from the objectionable features? If they were separated, would grade 
one and a half be improved by appropriating these features? Would such 
an appropriation be worthwhile? The most obvious, and as a matter of fact, 
the principal difference between grade one and a half and grade two is the 
number of contractions and abbreviations used. Grade one and a half has 
44 contractions, as compared with 189 in grade two. What is the relative 
importance of these various contractions? To what extent does each save 
space? To what extent do they facilitate reading? To what extent do 
they complicate reading? In other words, does grade two really have some 
superiority over grade one and a half, and if so, of what does it consist? 

It was with such questions as these in mind that the Research Depart- 
ment of the American Foundation for the Blind recently undertook a study 
of certain characteristics of grade two which were not thoroughly covered 
by the Uniform Type Committee. The results of this study are set forth 
in this leaflet, and are commended to the thoughtful, dispassionate considera- 
tion of the reader. 

Grade One and a Half and the Present Situation 

Twelve years ago the American workers for the blind adopted braille 
grade one and a half, which consists of the British braille alphabet and 44 
of the one-cell contractions. They also adopted the British system of mathe- 
matical notation and the braille music notation. The grade two capital sign 
was assigned to the less important post of italics sign, while the less obtru- 
sive italics sign in grade two was adopted as the capital sign in grade one 
and a half. The exclusion of the remaining 145 contractions and abbrevia- 

[1] 



tions was based upon certain objections, some of them demonstrated by the 
tests, and others largely theoretical. 

When grade one and a half was adopted in the United States it was 
with the hope that by a process of addition and elimination the English- 
speaking world would ultimately agree upon a form of the code which might 
meet with universal acceptance. The Commission on Uniform Type for the 
Blind, which with its predecessor, the Uniform Type Committee, had been 
instrumental in bringing about the adoption of this system, was instructed to 
"continue its labors with the British National Uniform Type Committee with 
the view of reaching a complete agreement regarding the whole question of 
uniform type."* In 1923, when the Uniform Type Commission ceased to 
exist, the American Association of Workers for the Blind requested the 
Foundation to carry forward the activities of that Commission. (See Reso- 
lution on page 8.) 

The average American is appalled by the fact that grade two contains 
more than four times as many contractions as grade one and a half. An 
examination, however, of the 145 contractions in grade two not included in 
grade one and a half shows that 73 are abbreviations, the significance of 
many of which is very obvious. For instance, the learner need be told 
hardly more than once that brl stands for braille, cd for could, pd for paid, 
rev for receive, etc. The tendency of Americans to enlarge upon the diffi- 
culties of learning so many contractions, making no distinction between 
abbreviations and arbitrary characters, is irritating to the British grade two 
devotee, and forces him to conclude that American spokesmen either have 
not taken the trouble to learn the grade two system, or that the much-vaunted 
Yankee intelligence and adaptability are not characteristics to be associated 
with blind people and their friends on this side of the water. 

A grade two reader may read grade one and a half without any special 
instruction, and a grade one and a half reader may, without any great diffi- 
culty, learn grade two. We are told, however, that few British grade two 
readers do make much use of grade one and a half books. Many explana- 
tions of this have been advanced. The average British reader tells you that 
it is annoying to meet with words spelled out Which he is accustomed to find 
printed in contractions. Probably the psychological reason behind the dis- 
like for grade one and a half is based on the fact that the rapid reader, at 
least, reads in large measure by word form rather than character by charac- 
ter, and the omission of so many of the frequently recurring contractions 
changes the general form of a considerable number of the words so that 
they must be spelled out by the British casual grade one and a half reader 
before they are recognized. 

Students of the subject are convinced that so long as there is the pres- 
ent marked gap between grade one and a half and grade two, there will be 



*Report of the Commission on Uniform Type for the Blind, June 1917, page 14. 

[2] 



no general interchange of books between the United States and Great Brit- 
ain. This is unfortunate, because considerable money is being spent on 
both sides of the Atlantic in the publishing of braille. During the first decade 
of the history of grade one and a half, most of the books published in that 
system were designed for school use. Since educators neither in Great Britain 
nor the United States have much interest in textbooks prepared for pupils in 
the other country, there has as yet been no great waste. Recently in America 
an increasing amount is being devoted to the publication of books for adults, 
and this increase is likely to have a rapid growth. In spite of the sentiment 
against duplicating titles in grade two, many books are put into grade 
one and a half which have already been published in grade two. If 
publishing for the blind were a commercial enterprise supported by readers 
amply able to indulge their whims as well as their tastes, we might look 
with complacency upon this duplication. Since, however, books for the 
blind must be paid for by the public, either through taxation or philanthropic 
contributions, do we have a moral right to sit by and watch this waste of 
money, if any sound basis of arriving at a reasonably satisfactory compro- 
mise can be discovered? 

Contractions — Their Importance and Limitations 

Braille contractions have three purposes: 1st, to save space; 2nd, to 
facilitate reading; and 3rd, to facilitate writing. In evaluating any con- 
traction all these purposes should be taken into consideration. No extensive 
study has been made of the effect of contractions upon writing. It is safe 
to say, however, that so long as contractions are not increased in number to 
the point where they constitute a burden on the learner, writing is facilitated 
in direct proportion to the extent to which the number of dots is reduced. 
Again, if they are not too numerous, other factors being equal, contractions 
probably facilitate reading in about the same proportion that they save 
space. 

Much valuable information regarding the relative legibility and fre- 
quency of recurrence of braille characters is to be found in the reports of 
the Uniform Type Committee, but unfortunately no exhaustive analysis 
was made o*f the relative space-saving values of the contractions and abbre- 
viations peculiar to grade two. 

The Uniform Type Committee's study showed that certain characters 
in the lower part of the cell, especially when standing alone, as in a word 
sign, are easily confused with similar characters in the upper part of the cell, 
such as but-be, just-was, go-were, every-enough, have-his, and such charac- 
ters as the sign for still and child are confused with the sign for knowledge. 
(See page 7, First Report, Uniform Type Committee, 1907; and page 33, 
Fifth Biennial Report, Uniform Type Committee, 1915.) This is accen- 
tuated in non-sense lists of words, such as were used in testing the legibility 
of these signs. The average reader is not usually conscious of these con- 

[3] 



fusions because the context tends to correct misapprehensions. There is, 
however, no doubt but that they cause some hesitation on the part of the 
casual reader. 

The Committee's studies also showed that certain contractions cause 
hesitation not only because of their infrequency of recurrence in general 
literature, but also because of the similarity of the principle upon which they 
are developed. For example, work, word, and world have a low degree of 
frequency, and are built from the w preceded by dot 4, dots 2-4, and 
dots 2-4-6, respectively. The grade one and a half capital sign also causes 
difficulty with the contractions which are built up by preceding the character 
by dot 4, as for example, day, ever, father, here, etc. 

We have long been aware that the same material in grade two as usually 
printed occupies about 12% less space than it does in grade one and a half, 
but hitherto we have not known very much about the respective space-saving 
powers of each of the 145 contractions not found in grade one and a half. 
Without this information it is difficult to discuss intelligently any proposal 
to add contractions to grade one and a half. For example, there is a con- 
fusion between the signs for have and his. Either of these contractions 
is excellent when the other one is not in the system. If it is deemed worth 
While to reopen the question of compromise with the British, one should 
know whether have or his has the greater space-saving value. Again, there 
are several two-cell contractions which America rejected on the ground 
that two-cell contractions were objectionable. If any modification of grade 
one and a half is to be considered, one should know the space-saving value 
of these two-cell contractions and weigh this value against the objections 
to them. 

Again, there is an objection to contractions which can only be used under 
special conditions, such as prefixes or suffixes. In this case also we should 
know their space-saving powers in order to be able to match them against 
the objections to them. 

Space-Saving Value of Grade Two Contractions 

In order to obtain the information regarding the space-saving value of 
the contractions peculiar to grade two, a careful study was made by the 
Foundation of selections taken from four different books of widely varying 
kinds of material. The aggregate number of words in these selections was 
91,564. 20,791 words were taken from "Man of Property" by John Gals- 
worthy ; 30,699 words from a collection of short stories by modern American 
authors entitled "My Story That I Like Best"; 27,031 words from "Ether 
and Reality" by Sir Oliver Lodge; and 13,043 words from the "Book of 
Job." These particular titles were selected partly because they were already 
published in either grade one and a half or grade two, thus saving the labor 
and expense of embossing, and partly because they seem to be fairly repre- 
sentative of various classes of literature. In calculating this material, it was 

[4] 



treated as if written in one continuous line, thus eliminating all questions 
growing out of the effect of varying line lengths in different books, as well 
as hyphens at ends of lines, paragraphs, etc. 

The 91,564 words in grade one and a half used in this study occupied 
427,776 cells, including characters and word spaces. In grade two these 
words occupied 376,866 cells. From this it will appear that grade two 
requires 50,910 cells or 11.9% less than grade one and a half. This saving 
is accomplished by the omission of capitals, the omission of spaces between 
certain words, such as jorthe, withthe, etc., by the use of certain contractions 
not employed in the grade one and a half system, and by the use of certain 
grade one and a half contractions under conditions not permitted in grade 
one and a half.* 

These space-saving elements have been classified and ranked in various 
tables. The space-saving value of each contraction is obtained by multi- 
plying the number of cells each contraction saves by the number of times 
it appeared in the 91,564 words studied. In determining the cells saved by 
each contraction account is taken of the contractions used in grade one 
and a half. For instance, in grade two the sign for know occupies two cells. 
Know in grade one and a half is written k-n-(ow), that is, using the ow 
sign which occupies one cell. Thus it will be seen that in grade one and 
a half know is written in three cells as compared with two cells in grade 
two. Accordingly grade two know effects a saving of one cell. By occupies 
one cell in grade two, and is written without a word space between it and 
the following word. It may therefore be said to save two cells as compared 
with grade one and a half, for in writing by in grade one and a half two 
characters are required in addition to the word space following it. 

Certain individual contractions do not have as great a space-saving 
value as others because they recur so infrequently in general literature. For 
example, the contraction for yourselves occupies four cells in grade two as 
compared with nine cells in grade one and a half, thus saving five cells. It 
appears, however, but four times in the 91,564 words, and therefore may 
be said to have a space-saving value of 4 times 5 or 20. The sign for was 
occupies one cell in grade two as compared with three cells in grade one and 
a half, thus saving two cells. It appears 814 times or has a space-saving 
value of 2 times 814 or 1628. 

A count was made of the number of times each contraction and capital 
sign was found in the 91,564 words as written in grade one and a half and 
in grade two. The space-saving elements have been treated in various ways 
in order to show their relative importance. The 50,910 cells saved by writ- 
ing the material in grade two as compared with grade one and a half have 
been analyzed and a calculation made of the percentage of saving effected 



♦The rules of grade one and a half do not allow the use of a contraction, part of 
the letters represented in which are in one syllable, and part in another. For instance, 
the en sign may not be used in renounce whereas in grade two this is permitted. 

m 



by each contraction or printing practice.f From this we find that 17.037 Jo 
of the saving was accomplished by the omission of capitals; 3.268% was 
accomplished by the omission of word spaces between such words as and, 
for, of, the, with, a; .946% was accomplished by the use of contractions 
found in grade one and a half which were used under conditions not permit- 
ted in that system; and 78.746% was accomplished by the use of the 138 
contractions not found in grade one and a half.* 

Inasmuch as there is a great deal of variation in the space-saving value 
of contractions, a calculation was made to determine what percentage of 
the 50,910 cell saving was accomplished by each contraction. (See Table I.) 

When it is demonstrated that certain contractions recur with such a low 
degree of frequency that they effect very little saving in general literature, 
most people will admit -that they are not among the strong points in grade 
two. It is fair to raise the question, furthermore, as to whether or not the 
inclusion of these contractions in grade two is worth while. If they have some 
ambiguous feature or if their meaning is not suggested by their composi- 
tion, it would seem to the student of the subject that grade two would be 
strengthened by eliminating them. This would apply also to certain con- 
tractions which have a rather noticeable space-saving value in some highly 
specialized forms of literature, but which recur with a low degree of fre- 
quency in general literature. For example, do the signs for Lord, Jesus, 
holy, glory, etc., effect sufficient saving of space in religious matter to justify 
their inclusion in the general system? 

On the other hand, when we find that the contraction for to saves over 
7% of the space saving accomplished by grade two over grade one and a 
half, that the contraction for ea saves over 3%, ation over 2%, and that 
such contractions as Hon, con, had, and ble save over 1^% respectively, 
those who are interested in carrying forward the original intent to bring 
about greater uniformity in the braille systems of the English-speaking 
world must produce strong reasons for not including these contractions in 
books printed for adults. 

An examination of the appended tables reveals many such possible addi- 
tions and subtractions., which if resorted to in a spirit of practical "give and 
take," might strengthen both systems and accomplish most gratifying prog- 
ress toward uniformity without imposing undue burdens upon the grade one 
and a half reader or depriving the grade two reader of contractions having 
marked space-saving powers. 

It is hoped that by a dispassionate study of this subject, and by open- 
minded discussion on both sides of the Atlantic, some tentative basis may 
be found which will give sufficient promise of mutual concessions to justify 



fBy printing practice is meant such space-saving devices as the omission of capital 
signs, omission of spaces between certain words, etc. 

*The following seven contractions used in grade two but not in grade one and a half 
did not appear in the 91,564 word: braille, conceiving, deceiving, declaring, Jesus, one- 
self, and rejoicing. 

[6] 



the calling of a meeting of a joint committee representing the United States 
and Great Britain, vested with the responsibility of working out changes in 
the two systems which will reduce materially the inconvenience of passing 
from one system to the other. The conclusions of this committee should, 
of course, then be submitted for ratification to the properly constituted 
authorities in the respective countries, concerned. 

In the light of the information discovered by this study, would not 
American workers for the blind and other braille readers do well to give 
serious thought to the possibility of improving grade one and a half by 
adding a limited number of contractions and abbreviations, whether the 
British authorities show any interest in joint action or not? A few con- 
tractions could be added to grade one and a half without in any way de- 
stroying the usefulness of the existing braille books. For this reason any 
proposal to make such a change bears no analogy to the proposal which 
resulted only a few years ago in the terrific sacrifice of libraries and equip- 
ment on the altar of uniformity. At best, braille is but a poor substitute 
for the efficient tool which the ink-print page has proved in the hands of 
those with sight. Blind people and their friends should therefore ponder 
carefully any facts having a bearing upon ways of improving the system. 



£7} 



RESOLUTION 15 

Adopted by the American Association of Workers for the Blind 

Janesville, Wisconsin 
June, 1923 



WHEREAS, The Commission on Uniform Type has now completed 
the work for which it was constituted and in accordance with this fact, the 
American Association of Instructors of the Blind at its Convention in June, 
1922, recommended that the work be taken over by the American Founda- 
tion for the Blind; and 

WHEREAS, The Commission is the creature jointly of the American 
Association of Instructors of the Blind and the American Association of 
Workers for the Blind, 

Be It Resolved, That the action taken by the Instructors' Convention 
a year ago be confirmed at this Convention. 

Be It Further Resolved, That in taking over the work the Foundation 
have respect to the various Steering Sub-Committees of the Commission in 
so far as it may be practicable, in order to retain the necessary expert ser- 
vice to carry on the work so well begun. 

Moved and seconded that this resolution be adopted. 



:s] 



TABLE I 

In the 91,564 words counted grade two occupied 50,910 less cells than 
grade one and a half. What percentage of this saving of space was accom- 
plished by each of the grade two contractions not found in grade one and 
a half? 

It will be noted from the table below that the contraction having the 
highest space-saving value is to, the next being st. These two contractions, 
taken alone, save twelve per cent of the space saving accomplished by the 
145 contractions and abbreviations peculiar to grade two. The next three 
contractions considered in their rank as. space savers are his, ea and was. 
These three contractions accomplish eleven per cent of the saving effected 
by the exclusively grade two contractions. 

A further study of this table shows that the first 10 contractions con- 
sidered from the standpoint of their space-saving value accomplished about 
one-third of the space effected by the 145 contractions peculiar to grade 
two. If we approach the table from the bottom and consider the space- 
saving value of those ranking lowest in the list, we find that the last 59 con- 
tractions accomplished less than five per cent of the saving effected by braille 
grade two over braille grade one and a half. 



Contraction % 


% Contraction % 


% Contractio 


n % 


% Contraction % 


to 


7.491 


under 


.549 


perhaps 


.282 


above 


.066 


st 


4.965 


12.46 sion 


.534 


work 


.278 


beneath 


.062 


his 


4.399 


could 


.526 


almost 


.276 


o'clock 


.062 


ea 


3.488 


between 


.518 


character 


.265 


ourselves 


.062 


was 
ation 
ch 
tion 


XI97 11.08 ^ auSe 
2.380 ^ 
i qja their 


.500 
.496 
.491 


itself 
5.42 ful 
cc 


.259 

.255 
.253 


yourself 

paid 

herself 


.062 
.058 
.058 


i ,7i \j 
1.799 
1.736 
1.528 


great 
ment 


.483 
.479 


also 
these 


.251 
.249 


deceive 
afterward 


.054 
.054 


con 
had 


942 ound 
still 


.479 
.479 


unto 
beyond 


.243 
.235 


declare 
perceive 


.053 
.053 


ble 


1.457 


always 
must 


.477 


dd 


.202 


conceive 


.049 


be 


1.441 


.447 


behind 


.182 


rejoice 


.047 


com 


1.422 


c ~< cannot 


.439 


world 


.182 


although 


.039 


by 


1.394 


571 good 


.439 


already 


.180 


5.06 child 


.039 


little 


1.312 


ence 


.424 


receive 


.180 


faith 


.039 


some 


1.249 


those 


.404 


5.04 spirit 


.180 


yourselves 


.039 


one 


1.139 


47R after 
478 such 

right 

ff 


.404 
.400 
.400 


God 


.178 


blind 


.035 


would 
him 


1.076 
.972 


many 
father 


.176 
.172 


below 
Christ 


.031 
.031 


ance 


.962 


.394 


name 


.161 


to-morrow 


.031 


dis 


.950 


against 
should 


.388 


your 


.161 


thyself 


.029 


were 


.931 


.353 


ount 


.157 


to-night 


.029 


ness 


.895 


before 


.349 


here 


.147 


receiving 


.023 


said 


872 


5.58 again 
day 
its 

through 
part 
ought 
word 


.345 


enough 


.141 


glory 


.017 


about T848 
into .758 
time .726 
themselves .707 
there .691 
ally 68.1 


.341 
.333 
.333 
.328 
.314 
.314 


myself 
gg 

whose 
neither 
either 
5.00 ^cording 


.135 
.127 
.125 
.113 
.113 
.108 


grace 

to-day 

saith 

holy 

perceiving 

braille 


.017 
.015 
.007 
.003 
.003 
.000 


himself 


.652 


5-07 less 


3Io 


altogether 
Lord 


.108 
.098 


conceiving 
deceiving 


.000 
.000 


ity 


.585 


much 


.298 


mother 


.086 


declaring 


.000 


know 


.581 


where 


.286 


bb 


.084 


Jesus 


.000 


ever 


.573 


young 


.286 


immediate 


.082 


oneself 


.000 


upon 


.553 


children 


.284 


beside 
[9] 


.070 


rejoicing 


.000 



4.07 



TABLE II 

How many times did each of the contractions peculiar to grade two 
appear in the selections studied ? 

What was the average number of times that each of the contractions 
peculiar to grade two appeared per 1000 words? 

How many cells do each of the contractions peculiar to grade two save 
over the grade one and a half system? 

What is the aggregate number of cells saved by the contractions peculiar 
to grade two ? 





Frequency of 


Frequency per 


Cells 


Aggregate Number of 


Contraction 


Recurrence 


1000 Words 


Saved 


Cells Saved 


to 


1907 


20.82 


2 


3814 


St 


2528 


27.60 


1 


2528 


his 


1120 


12.23 


2 


2240 


ea 


1776 


19.39 


1 


1776 


was 


814 


8.88 


2 


1628 


ation 


404 


4.41 


3 


1212 


ch 


1006 


10.98 


1 


1006 


tion 


458 


5.00 


2 


916 


con 


442 


4.82 


2 


884 


had 


778 


8.49 


1 


778 


ble 


371 


4.05 


2 


742 


be 


734 


8.01 


1 


734 


com 


362 


3.95 


2 


724 


by 


355 


3.87 


2 


710 


little 


167 


1.82 


4 


668 


some 


318 


3.47 


2 


636 


one 


580 


6.33 


1 


580 


would 


274 


2.99 


2 


548 


him 


495 


5.40 


1 


495 


ance 


245 


2.67 


2 


490 


dis 


242 


2.64 


2 


484 


were 


237 


2.58 


2 


474 


ness 


228 


2.49 


2 


456 


said 


222 


2.42 


2 


444 


about 


216 


2.35 


2 


432 


into 


193 


2.10 


2 


386 


time 


185 


2.02 


2 


370 


themselves 


90 


.982 


4 


360 


there 


352 


3.84 


1 


352 


ally 


174 


1.90 


2 


348 


himself 


83 


.906 


4 


332 


ity 


298 


3.25 


1 


298 


know 


296 


3.23 


1 


296 


ever 


292 


3.18 


1 


292 


upon 


141 


1.53 


2 


282 


under 


140 


1.52 


2 


280 


sion 


136 


1.48 


2 


272 


could 


134 


1.46 


2 


268 


between 


66 


.720 


4 


264 


because 


51 


.556 


5 


255 



[10] 



TABLE II— (Continued) 





Frequency of 


Frequency per 


Cells 


Aggregate Number of 


Contraction 


Recurrence 


1000 Words 


Saved 


Cells Saved 


ong 


253 


2.76 


1 


253 


their 


250 


2.73 


1 


250 


great 


123 


1.34 


2 


246 


ment 


244 


2.66 


1 


244 


ound 


244 


2.66 


1 


244 


still 


61 


.666 


4 


244 


always 


81 


.884 


3 


243 


must 


114 


1.24 


2 


228 


good 


112 


1.22 


2 


224 


cannot 


56 


.622 


4 


224 


ence 


216 


2.35 


1 


216 


those 


103 


1.12 


2 


206 


after 


103 


1.12 


2 


206 


such 


102 


1.11 


2 


204 


right 


102 


1.11 


2 


204 


ff 


201 


2.19 


1 


201 


against 


66 


.720 


3 


198 


should 


90 


.982 


2 


180 


before 


89 


.971 


2 


178 


again 


88 


.961 


2 


176 


day 


174 


1.90 


1 


174 


through 


85 


.928 


2 


170 


its 


170 


1.85 


1 


170 


part 


167 


1.82 


1 


167 


word 


80 


.873 


2 


160 


ought 


160 


1.74 


1 


160 


less 


79 


.862 


2 


158 


much 


76 


.830 


2 


152 


young 


73 


.797 


2 


146 


where 


146 


1.59 


1 


146 


children 


29 


.316 


5 


145 


perhaps 


48 


.524 


3 


144 


work 


71 


.775 


2 


142 


almost 


47 


.513 


3 


141 


character 


27 


.294 


5 


135 


itself 


33 


.360 


4 


132 


ful 


130 


1.42 


1 


130 


cc 


129 


1.41 


1 


129 


also 


64 


.698 


2 


128 


these 


127 


1.39 


1 


127 


unto 


62 


.677 


2 


124 


beyond 


30 


.327 


4 


120 


dd 


103 


1.12 


1 


103 


world 


31 


.338 


3 


93 


behind 


31 


.338 


3 


93 


already 


23 


.251 


4 


92 


receive 


23 


.251 


4 


92 


spirit 


23 


.251 


4 


92 


God 


91 


.993 


1 


91 



[11] 



TABLE II— (Continued) 



Contraction 

many 

father 

name 

your 

ount 

here 

enough 

myself 

gg 

whose 

either 

neither 

according 

altogether 

Lord 

mother 

bb 

immediate 

beside 

above 

ourselves 

o'clock 

yourself 

beneath 

paid 

herself 

afterward 

deceive 

declare 

perceive 

conceive 

rejoice 

faith 

although 

yourselves 

child 

blind 

below 

to-morrow 

Christ 

to-night 

thyself 

receiving 

glory 

grace 

to-day 

saith 

holy 

perceiving 

oneself 

conceiving 

declaring 

Jesus 

rejoicing 

deceiving 

braille 



Frequency of 


Frequency per 


Cells 


Aggregate Number of 


Recurrence 


1000 Words 


Saved 


Cells Saved 


45 


.491 


2 


90 


44 


.480 


2 


88 


41 


.447 


2 


82 


82 


.895 


1 


82 


80 


.873 


1 


80 


75 


.819 


1 


75 


24 


262 


3 


72 


23 


.251 


3 


69 


65 


.709 


1 


65 


32 


.349 


2 


64 


29 


.316 


2 


58 


29 


.316 


2 


58 


11 


.120 


5 


55 


11 


.120 


5 


55 


25 


.273 


2 


50 


22 


240 


2 


44 


43 


.469 


1 


43 


7 


.076 


6 


42 


9 


.098 


4 


36 


17 


.185 


2 


34 


8 


.087 


\ 4 


32 


8 


.087 


4 


32 


8 


.087 


4 


32 


8 


.087 


4 


32 


15 


.163 


2 


30 


10 


.109 


3 


30 


7 


.076 


4 


28 


7 


.076 


4 


28 


9 


.098 


3 


27 


9 


.098 


3 


27 


5 


.054 


5 


25 


6 


.065 


4 


24 


10 


.109 


2 


20 


10 


.109 


2 


20 


4 


.043 


5 


20 


5 


.054 


4 


20 


9 


.098 


2 


18 


8 


.087 


2 


16 


4 


.043 


4 


16 


4 


.043 


4 


16 


5 


.054 


3 


15 


5 


.054 


3 


15 


4 


.044 


3 


12 


3 


.032 


3 


9 


3 


.032 


3 


9 


4 


.043 


2 


8 


2 


.021 


2 


4 


1 


.010 


2 


2 


1 


.010 


2 


2 





.000 


4 








.000 


4 








.000 


2 








.000 


3 








.000 


4 








.000 


3 








.000 


4 






[12] 



TABLE III 

What is the frequency of recurrence of each of the grade two con- 
tractions ? 

What is the frequency per 1000 words of each of the grade two con- 
tractions ? 



Contraction 


Frequency of 
Recurrence 


Frequency 
per 1000 
Words 


Contraction 


Frequency of 
Recurrence 


Frequency 
per 1000 
Words 


*the 


7005 


76.50 


♦out 


331 


3.61 


*in 


3923 


42.84 


♦from 


327 


3.57 


♦er 


3670 


40.08 


some 


318 


3.44 


♦ed 


3611 


39.43 


♦so 


306 


3.34 


*and 


3466 


37.85 


ity 


298 


3.25 


♦of 


3224 


35.21 


know 


296 


3.23 


*en 


3062 


33.44 


ever 


292 


3.18 


*ing 


2588 


28.26 


♦this 


291 


3.17 


St 


2528 


27.69 


♦can 


279 


3.04 


♦th 


2261 


24.69 


would 


274 


2.99 


♦ar 


2251 


24.58 


ong 


253 


2.76 


to 


1907 


20.82 


their 


250 


2.73 


ea 


1776 


19.39 


ance 


245 


2.67 


*ou 


1496 


16.33 


ment 


244 


2.66 


♦it 


1362 


14.87 


ound 


244 


2.66 


♦that 


1211 


13.22 


dis 


242 


2.64 


♦for 


1139 


12.43 


were 


237 


2.58 


his 


1120 


12.23 


ness 


228 


2.49 


♦ow 


1117 


12.19 


said 


222 


2.42 


♦sh 


1050 


11.46 


ence 


216 


2.35 


ch 


1006 


10.98 


about 


216 


2.35 


♦wh 


993 


10.84 


♦shall 


205 


2.23 


♦with 


852 


9.30 


♦like 


201 


2.19 


was 


814 


8.88 


ff 


201 


2.19 


had 


778 


8.44 


into 


193 


2.10 


be 


734 


8.01 


time 


185 


2.02 


♦not 


676 


7.38 


♦do 


182 


1.98 


♦as 


668 


7.29 


ally 


174 


1.90 


♦gh 


646 


7.05 


day 


174 


1.90 


one 


580 


6.33 


its 


170 


1.85 


♦but 


529 


5.77 


part 


167 


1.82 


him 


495 


5.40 


little 


167 


1.82 


tion 


458 


5.00 


♦more 


160 


1.74 


con 


442 


4.82 


ought 


160 


1.74 


♦you 


438 


4.78 


where 


146 


1.59 


ation 


404 


4.41 


upon 


141 


1.53 


♦which 


400 


4.36 


under 


140 


1.52 


♦have 


398 


4.34 


sion 


136 


1.48 


ble 


371 


4.05 


could 


134 


1.46 


com 


362 


3.95 


ful 


130 


1.42 


by 


355 


3.87 


♦will 


130 


1.42 


there 


352 


3.84 


cc 


129 


1.41 



♦Grade one and a half contractions. 



[13] 



TABLE III— (Continued) 



Contraction 

these 

great 

must 
*very 

good 

those 

after 

dd 

such 

right 
*go 
*us 

God 

should 

themselves 

before 

again 

through 

himself 

your 

always 

ount 

word 

less 
*just 

much 

here 

young 
*every 

work 

against 

between 

also 
unto 

still 

cannot 

because 

perhaps 

almost 

many 

father 

bb 
*people 

name 
*rather 
♦knowledge 

itself 
*quite 

whose 

behind 

world 





Frequency 






Frequency 


Frequency of 


per 1000 




Frequency of 


per 1000 


Recurrence 


Words 


Contraction 


Recurrence 


Words 


127 


1.39 


beyond 


30 


.327 


123 


1.34 


neither 


29 


.316 


114 


1.24 


either 


29 


.316 


114 


1.24 


children 


29 


.316 


112 


1.22 


character 


27 


.294 


103 


1.12 


Lord 


25 


.273 


103 


1.12 


enough 


24 


.262 


103 


1.12 


myself 


23 


.251 


102 


1.11 


already 


23 


.251 


102 


1.11 


receive 


23 


.251 


94 


1.03 


spirit 


23 


.251 


94 


1.03 


mother 


22 


.240 


91 


.993 


above 


17 


.185 


90 


.982 


paid 


15 


.163 


90 


.982 


according 


11 


.120 


89 


.971 


altogether 


11 


.120 


88 


.961 


although 


10 


.109 


85 


.928 


faith 


10 


.109 


83 


.906 


herself 


10 


.109 


82 


.895 


beside 


9 


.098 


81 


.884 


blind 


9 


.098 


80 


.873 


declare 


9 


.098 


80 


.873 


perceive 


9 


.098 


79 


.862 


below 


8 


.087 


78 


.851 


beneath 


8 


.087 


76 


.830 


yourself 


8 


.087 


75 


.819 


o'clock 


8 


.087 


73 


.797 


ourselves 


8 


.087 


72 


.786 


deceive 


7 


.076 


71 


.775 


afterward 


7 


.076 


66 


.720 


immediate 


7 


.076 


66 


.720 


rej oice 


6 


.065 


65 


.709 , 


child 


5 


.054 


64 


.698 


conceive 


5 


.054 


62 


.677 


thyself 


5 


.054 


61 


.666 


to-night 


5 


.054 


56 


.622 


Christ 


4 


.043 


51 


.556 


receiving 


4 


.043 


48 


.524 


to-day 


4 


.043 


47 


.513 


to-morrow 


4 


.043 


45 


.491 


yourselves 


4 


.043 


44 


.480 


glory 


3 


.032 


43 


.469 


grace 


3 


.032 


42 


.458 


saith 


2 


.021 


41 


.447 


holy 


1 


.010 


40 


.436 


perceiving 


1 


.010 


39 


.425 


braille 





.000 


33 


.360 


conceiving 





.000 


32 


.349 


deceiving 





.000 


32 


.349 


declaring 





.000 


31 


.338 


Jesus 





.000 


31 


.338 


oneself 





.000 






rejoicing 


'0 


.000 



[14] 



TABLE IV 

What is the frequency of recurrence of the grade one and a half con- 
tractions in grade two? 

What is the frequency per 1000 words of the grade one and a half con- 
tractions in grade two? 





Frequency of 


Frequency per 


Contraction 


Recurrence 


1000 Words 


the 


7005 


76.50 


in 


3923 


42.84 


er 


3670 


40.08 


ed 


3611 


39.43 


and 


3466 


37.85 


of 


3224 


35.21 


en 


3062 


33.44 


ing 


2588 


28.26 


th 


2261 


24.69 


ar 


2251 


24.58 


ou 


1496 


16.33 


it 


1362 


14.87 


that 


1211 


13.22 


for 


1139 


12.43 


ow 


1117 


12.19 


sh 


1050 


11.46 


wh 


993 


10.84 


with 


852 


9.30 


not 


676 


7.38 


as 


668 


7.29 


gh 


646 


7.05 


but 


529 


5.77 


you 


438 


4.78 


which 


400 


4.36 


have 


398 


4.34 


out 


331 


3.61 


from 


327 


3.57 


so 


306 


3.34 


this 


291 


3.17 


can 


279 


3.04 


shall 


205 


2.23 


like 


201 


2.19 


do 


182 


1.98 


more 


160 


1.74 


will 


130 


1.42 


very- 


114 


1.24 


go 


94 


1.03 


us 


94 


1.03 


just 


78 


.851 


every 


72 


.786 


people 


42 


.458 


rather 


40 


.436 


knowledge 


39 


.425 


quite 


32 


.349 



(in 



TABLE V 

What percentage of saving is effected by grade two over grade one 
and a half? 11.91%. 

Grade two occupies what percentage of space occupied by grade one 
and a half? 88.09%. 

Should the grade two authorities find it advisable to drop certain con- 
tractions, the following table, it is believed, will be helpful in calculating 
the effect on space occupied by the system. It indicates the percentage of 
increase in space caused by the omission of each grade two contraction. 
This increase is not absolutely accurate as the space-saving value of each 
is computed on a comparison with grade one and a half, whereas a separate 
calculation should be made for each contraction on a comparison with all 
the other contractions remaining after the elimination has been made. It is 
sufficiently accurate, however, to be usable as a basis of discussion. 



Contraction 


Percent 


Contraction 


Percei 


to 


1.012 


upon 


.075 


St 


.670 


under 


.074 


his 


.594 


sion 


.072 


ea 


.471 


could 


.071 


was 


.431 


between 


.070 


ation 


.321 


because 


.068 


ch 


267 


ong 


.067 


tion 


.243 


their 


.066 


con 


.235 


great 


.065 


had 


.206 


ment 


.065 


ble 


.197 


ound 


.065 


be 


.195 


still 


.065 


com 


.192 


always 


.064 


by 


.188 


must 


.060 


little 


.177 


cannot 


.059 


some 


.169 


good 


.059 


one 


.154 


ence 


.057 


would 


.145 


those 


.055 


him 


.131 


after 


.055 


ance 


.130 


such 


.054 


dis 


.128 


right 


.054 


were 


.126 


ff 


.053 


ness 


.121 


against 


.053 


said 


.118 


should 


.048 


about 


.115 


before 


.047 


into 


.102 


again 


.047 


time 


.098 


day 


.046 


themselves 


.096 


its 


.045 


there 


.093 


through 


.045 


ally 


.092 


part 


.044 


himself 


.088 


ought 


.042 


ity 


.079 


word 


.042 


know 


.078 


less 


.042 


ever 


.077 


much 


.040 



[16] 





TABLE V— 


(Continued) 




Contraction 


Percent 


Contraction 


Percen 


where 


.039 


immediate 


.011 


young 


.039 


beside 


.010 


children 


.038 


above 


.009 


perhaps 


.038 


beneath 


.008 


work 


.038 


o'clock 


.008 


almost 


.037 


ourselves 


.008 


character 


.036 


yourself 


.008 


itself 


.035 


paid 


.008 


ful 


.034 


herself 


.008 


cc 


.034 


deceive 


.007 


also 


.034 


afterward 


.007 


these 


.034 


declare 


.007 


unto 


.033 


perceive 


.007 


beyond 


.032 


conceive 


.007 


dd 


.027 


rejoice 


.006 


behind 


.025 


although 


.005 


world 


.025 


child 


.005 


already 


.024 


faith 


.005 


receive 


.024 


yourselves 


.005 


spirit 


.024 


blind 


.005 


God 


.024 


below 


.004 


many 


.024 


Christ 


.004 


father 


.023 


to-morrow 


.004 


name 


.022 


thyself 


.004 


your 


.022 


to-night 


.004 


ount 


.021 


receiving 


.003 


here 


.020 


glory 


.002 


enough 


.020 


grace 


.002 


myself 


.018 


to-day 


.002 


gg 


.017 


saith 


.001 


whose 


.017 


holy 


.0005 


neither 


.015 


perceiving 


.0005 


either 


.015 


braille 


.000 


according 


.015 


conceiving 


.000 


altogether 


.015 


deceiving 


.000 


Lord 


.013 


declaring 


.000 


mother 


.012 


Jesus 


.000 


bb 


.011 


oneself 


.000 






rejoicing 


.000 



{17] 



i